Lung cancer: are you at risk?
Lung cancer is the UK’s biggest cancer killer. It kills more people each year than breast cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer and leukaemia combined. However, some forms can be cured if they're caught early enough .
Lung cancer accounts for 1 in 16 of all deaths in the UK and more than 1 in 5 of all cancer deaths.
Most people with lung cancer are smokers (or ex-smokers), but lung cancer can affect anyone at any age. Smoking is not the only cause, as 1 in 7 cases of lung cancer are not linked with smoking.
Who’s at risk of lung cancer?
Smoking is the main risk factor for lung cancer. 3 out of 10 smokers who start smoking in their early teens and continue to smoke will not live to claim their pension.
There are other risk factors for lung cancer, including:
- passive smoking (second-hand smoking)
- exposure to radon gas
- exposure to asbestos and other chemicals
- a poor diet
- a family history of lung cancer
What can you do to prevent lung cancer?
The best way to prevent lung cancer is to quit (or even better, never start) smoking. The sooner you give up smoking, the better. Even if you've been smoking for many years, it’s never too late to benefit from quitting smoking. As soon as you stop smoking, your risk of lung cancer starts to reduce. Ten years after you've stopped smoking, your lung cancer risk is half that of someone who's continued to smoke.
If you'd like to stop smoking, speak to your doctor about how they can help you quit. They'll be able to advise you about nicotine replacement therapies and prescription drugs such as Zyban and Champix, which can increase your chances of quitting successfully. They can also put you in touch with local support groups and stop-smoking advisers.
Read more about how the NHS can help you to stop smoking.
Avoid passive smoking
The risk to your health if you’re a passive smoker increases the more cigarette smoke you're exposed to. It’s estimated that the risk of developing lung cancer is increased by about 20-30% in people who are regularly exposed to other people’s cigarette smoke. Heavy exposure to second-hand smoke in childhood can increase the risk of lung cancer in later life.
Cigarette smoke in the home is particularly harmful. Even with a window open, the chemicals linger in the air for at least a couple of hours. Ask people to stop smoking around you, and ask friends and family members who smoke to do so outside when they come to your home.
Tackle radon gas in your home
Radon gas is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that can seep from the soil into buildings. It’s thought to cause almost 1 in 10 lung cancer cases. Most houses in the UK have fairly low levels of radon, but certain parts of the country where there is a lot of granite, such as the West Country and the Peak District, have higher levels.
If you’re worried that you may be exposed to high levels of radon, the Health Protection Agency has information on radon gas. It can also tell you how to reduce exposure by making simple changes to your home to insulate it against radon seeping in.
Improve your diet
Eat more fresh fruit and vegetables. They're thought to help prevent many types of cancer, including lung cancer. Aim for at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day.
Read more about eating to prevent cancer.
By keeping physically active, you help to keep your lungs healthy. Aim to do half an hour of exercise (walking, jogging, working out at the gym, gardening, swimming and so on) at least five times a week.
Read more about how you can get more exercise.
Protect yourself from asbestos
If you’re a tradesperson, such as a builder, electrician, carpenter, plumber, joiner or plasterer, there’s a good chance you’ll be exposed to asbestos through your work. Make sure you know how to recognise asbestos and how to protect yourself from breathing in the potentially lethal, cancer-causing dust it creates when it is disturbed.
Read more about how to protect yourself from asbestos.