Health A-Z

Use the Health A-Z to find answers to your health questions, verified by certified doctors.

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  • A guide to pilatesAll you need to know about getting started in pilates, including pilates vi...
  • A guide to tai chiAll you need to know about tai chi, including health benefits, different st...
  • A guide to yogaAll you need to know to get started with yoga, including the health benefit...
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysmInformation on abdominal aortic aneurysm from NHS Choices including causes,...
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm screeningAbdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening is a way of detecting a dangerous...
  • Abnormal uterine bleedingAbnormal uterine bleeding is any abnormal bleeding from the womb (uterus) t...
  • AbortionAn abortion is the medical process of ending a pregnancy so that it does no...
  • AbscessAn abscess is a painful collection of pus that is caused by a bacterial inf...
  • Absent periods (amenorrhoea)Having absent periods means you have either stopped having periods or haven...
  • Abuse in teenage relationshipsAbuse is never OK in relationships, and that includes verbal and emotional ...
  • Acanthosis nigricansAcanthosis nigricans is used to describe thick, darkened patches of skin in...
  • Accidents and first aidEvery year in the UK, thousands of people die or are seriously injured in a...
  • Accidents to children in the homeEvery year, more than 1 million children under 15 years of age are taken to...
  • AchalasiaAchalasia means that your gullet has lost its ability to move food along an...
  • AcneAcne is a common skin condition that affects most people at some point duri...
  • Acoustic neuromaAn acoustic neuroma, which is also known as a vestibular Schwannoma, is a b...
  • AcromegalyAcromegaly is a condition in which the body produces too much growth hormon...
  • Actinic keratosisNHS Choices information on actinic (solar) keratoses, which are scaly patch...
  • ActinomycosisActinomycosis is a rare type of bacterial infection caused by actinomyces b...
  • AcupunctureFind everything you need to know about acupuncture, a form of ancient Chine...
  • Acute cholecystitisAcute cholecystitis is inflammation (swelling) of the gallbladder, usually ...
  • Acute kidney injuryNHS Choices information on acute kidney injury, with links to other useful ...
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukaemiaNHS Choices information about acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, with links to ...
  • Acute myeloid leukaemiaLeukaemia is cancer of the white blood cells. Symptoms include pale skin, t...
  • Acute pancreatitisAcute pancreatitis is a serious condition where the pancreas becomes inflam...
  • Acute respiratory distress syndromeAcute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening medical co...
  • AddictionAddiction is a state of physical dependence on drugs or alcohol. As well as...
  • Addiction: what is it?If you have an addiction, you're not alone. One in three of us has an addic...
  • Addison's diseaseAddison’s disease (also known as primary adrenal insufficiency or hypoadren...
  • Adenoids and adenoidectomyAn adenoidectomy is a quick operation to remove the adenoids. Adenoids are ...
  • Advice for new kidney patientsBeing diagnosed with kidney disease can be a shock. Follow these tips to he...
  • AgoraphobiaFind everything you need to know about agoraphobia including causes, sympto...
  • Air embolismAn air embolism is an air bubble trapped in a blood vessel. An air embolism...
  • AlbinismAlbinism is an inherited condition that affects the production of melanin, ...
  • Alcohol and sexThe risks of having sex after drinking, including STIs and pregnancy, with ...
  • Alcohol misuseAlcohol misuse is where a person consumes excessive amounts of alcoholic dr...
  • Alcohol poisoningAlcohol poisoning is caused by excessive drinking, causing vomiting and pas...
  • Alcohol supportRealising you have a problem with alcohol is the first step to getting bett...
  • Alcohol unitsIt's a good idea to keep an eye on how much we drink, but how many of us re...
  • Alcohol-related liver diseaseAlcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) refers to liver damage caused by alcoh...
  • Alexander techniqueThe Alexander technique is a method of teaching improved posture and moveme...
  • AlkaptonuriaAlkaptonuria, or 'black urine disease', is a rare inherited disorder that p...
  • Allergic rhinitisAllergic rhinitis is inflammation of the inside of the nose caused by an al...
  • AllergiesAn allergy is an adverse reaction that the body has to a particular food or...
  • Altitude sicknessAltitude sickness is a common condition that can occur when you climb to a ...
  • Alzheimer's diseaseAlzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Dementia is a gro...
  • Am I Pregnant?To find out if you're pregnant, you can do a pregnancy test from the first ...
  • Am I gay, lesbian or bisexual? Information for young people, including dealing with bullying and coming ou...
  • Ambiguous genitaliaDisorders of sex development (DSDs) are a group of conditions where the rep...
  • AmniocentesisAmniocentesis is a diagnostic test carried out during pregnancy to assess w...
  • AmputationAn amputation is the surgical removal of part of the body, usually a leg or...
  • AmyloidosisAmyloidosis is a group of rare but serious diseases caused by deposits of a...
  • Anabolic steroid abuseRead NHS Choices information about anabolic steroid abuse, including who ta...
  • AnaesthesiaAnaesthesia means ‘loss of sensation’. Medications that cause anaesthesia a...
  • Anal cancerNHS Choices information about anal cancer, with links to other useful resou...
  • Anal fissureAn anal fissure is a tear or ulcer (open sore) that develops in the lining ...
  • Anal fistulaAn anal fistula is a small channel that develops between the end of the bow...
  • Anal painNHS Choices information on anal pain (proctalgia), with links to other usef...
  • AnaphylaxisAnaphylaxis is a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction.
  • Androgen insensitivity syndromeAndrogen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) affects the development of a child's ...
  • Angelman syndromeAngelman syndrome is a rare genetic condition that affects approximately 1 ...
  • Anger managementFind everything you need to know about anger management including self-help...
  • AnginaAngina is a heart condition that occurs when the blood supply to the muscle...
  • AngioedemaAngioedema is the swelling of the deeper layers of the skin, caused by a bu...
  • AngiographyAn angiography is a type of X-ray used to examine blood vessels. The images...
  • Animal bitesFind everything you need to know about human and animal bites including cau...
  • Ankylosing spondylitisAnkylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of chronic (long-term) arthritis that...
  • Anorexia nervosaAnorexia nervosa is an eating disorder and mental health condition that can...
  • Anosmia NHS Choices information about anosmia, which is an absence of sense of smel...
  • Antacid medicinesAntacids are not always suitable for everyone, sometimes they need to be ta...
  • AntibioticsFind everything you need to know about antibiotics including causes, sympto...
  • Anticoagulant medicinesAnticoagulant medicines reduce the ability of the blood to clot. If the blo...
  • AntidepressantsAntidepressants are a type of medication used to treat depression or preven...
  • Antifungal medicinesAntifungal medicines are used to treat fungal infections.
  • AntihistaminesAntihistamines are a type of medicine often used to treat a number of aller...
  • Antiphospholipid syndromeAntiphospholipid syndrome (APS), also known as Hughes syndrome, is a disord...
  • Antisocial personality disorderInformation on antisocial personality disorder, with links to other useful ...
  • Anxiety about healthHealth anxiety (hypochondria) is obsessive worrying about your health, usua...
  • Anxiety disorders in childrenNHS Choices information on anxiety disorders in children and teenagers, wit...
  • Aortic valve replacementAortic valve replacement is currently the most effective treatment for aort...
  • AphasiaAphasia is a communication disorder which makes it difficult to read, write...
  • AppendicitisAppendicitis is a swollen appendix that gives severe increasing tummy pain....
  • Are chocolate's health claims for real?We examine the latest research to see whether the health claims about choco...
  • Are we too clean for our own good?Find out if modern home and personal hygiene standards are to blame for the...
  • Are you at risk of breaking a bone?Work out if you're at risk of osteoporosis and breaking a bone in the next ...
  • Are you at risk of falling?Take this simple test to work out if you need to discuss your risk of falls...
  • Are you ready for sex?Things to consider if you're thinking about having sex, including 10 questi...
  • Arm or elbow painInformation on arm or elbow pain, with links to other useful resources.
  • ArrhythmiaNHS Choices information on arrhythmia, with links to other useful resources...
  • Arterial thrombosisArterial thrombosis is a blood clot that develops in an artery. It is very ...
  • ArthritisArthritis is a common condition that causes pain and inflammation within a ...
  • ArthroscopyAn arthroscopy is keyhole surgery that is used to diagnose joint problems a...
  • Artificial inseminationArtificial insemination is a treatment for infertility, when a couple canno...
  • Asbestos and lung cancerHow to protect yourself from exposure to asbestos, which can cause mesothel...
  • AsbestosisAsbestosis is a chronic (long-term) lung condition caused by prolonged expo...
  • Ask the GP: smoking Q&AsA GP answers some of your queries about quitting and the health risks of sm...
  • AspergillosisAspergillosis is the name of a range of infections caused by a fungal mould...
  • AspirinAspirin is an antiplatelet medicine, which means it reduces the risk of clo...
  • AsthmaAsthma is a long-term lung condition which currently has no cure however tr...
  • Asthma in childrenAsthma is a common long-term condition that can be well controlled in most ...
  • AstigmatismAstigmatism is a common and usually minor condition of the eye that causes ...
  • At risk of HIV? Get tested nowIt's important to get tested for HIV so you can start treatment at the righ...
  • AtaxiaAtaxia is a term that describes a group of neurological disorders that affe...
  • AtherosclerosisAtherosclerosis is a potentially serious condition where arteries become cl...
  • Athlete's footAthlete’s foot is a common condition that is caused by a fungal infection. ...
  • Atopic eczemaAtopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is the most common form of ...
  • Atrial fibrillationAtrial fibrillation is a heart condition that causes an irregular and often...
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural s...
  • Auditory processing disorderAn auditory processing disorder is a hearing or listening problem caused by...
  • Autism diagnosis for adultsWhy you may want a formal diagnosis, how to approach your doctor, and the b...
  • Autism spectrum disorder Autism and Asperger syndrome are both part of a range of related developmen...
  • AutopsyA post-mortem, also known as an autopsy, is the examination of a body after...
  • Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic condition...
  • Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a rare genetic chi...
  • Avascular necrosis of the hipAvascular necrosis is a condition which occurs when there is a loss of bloo...
  • Avoid medicines scamsDoes an online miracle cure hold the answer to your health problem?
  • Avoid winter weight gainMany of us get heavier as the days get colder. Here's how to combat winter ...
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  • B vitamins and folic acid**There are many different types of vitamin B.**
  • BRCA gene mutation testNHS Choices information on genetic screening for cancer risk, with links to...
  • Back pain at workAvoid back pain at work, with tips on desk organisation, adjusting your cha...
  • Bacterial arthritisSeptic arthritis is inflammation of a joint caused by a bacterial infection...
  • Bacterial vaginosisBacterial vaginosis is an infectious disease of the vagina, caused by imbal...
  • Bad breath (halitosis)Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is usually the result of poor oral hyg...
  • Baker's cystA Baker's cyst, also called a popliteal cyst, is a fluid-filled swelling th...
  • Balance exercises Simple balance exercises that can be done at home to help improve your heal...
  • BalanitisBalanitis is swelling of the head of the penis and sometimes the foreskin i...
  • Bariatric surgeryInformation on weight loss surgery from NHS Choices including causes, sympt...
  • Barium enemaFind everything you need to know about barium enema, including how it is pe...
  • Bartholin's cystA Bartholin's cyst, or Bartholin's duct cyst, is a small growth just inside...
  • Beans and pulses in your dietPulses are a great source of protein. Find out how to cook and store them.
  • Beat the bloatTips for getting rid of bloating, including cutting out "windy" foods and f...
  • BedbugsBedbugs (Cimex lectularius) are small blood-sucking insects that can live i...
  • BedwettingBedwetting can be worrying and frustrating, but it's common for children to...
  • Before sex: what to ask your partnerAdvice on how to talk to a new partner about safer sex and your sexual hist...
  • Before you travelPractical advice if you're travelling abroad, including vaccinations, DVT, ...
  • Behçet’s diseaseBehçet’s disease is a rare and poorly understood condition that causes infl...
  • Bell's palsyBell's palsy is a condition that causes temporary weakness or paralysis of ...
  • Benefits of cyclingFind out how regular cycling can help you lose weight and boost your health...
  • Benefits of exerciseFind out why 150 minutes of physical activity every week can greatly improv...
  • Benefits of love and sexLove and sex can help your health and wellbeing in many ways, including hel...
  • Benign brain tumour (non-cancerous) A benign (non-cancerous) brain tumour is a mass of cells that grows slowly ...
  • Benign prostate enlargementProstate enlargement, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, is a comm...
  • Bereavement and young peopleAdvice and support to help you get through the loss of someone important to...
  • Beta blockersBeta-blockers (also known as beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents) are medicat...
  • Beware of common household germsYou can't kill all the germs in your home, but these are the germs you need...
  • Bicarbonate testA bicarbonate test, also known as a C02 test, is used to screen electrolyte...
  • Bile duct cancerCancer of the bile duct is a rare but aggressive type of cancer that begins...
  • Binge drinkingA drink-by-drink guide to the effects of binge drinking on your mind and bo...
  • Binge eatingBinge eating is a mental health condition where a person consumes very larg...
  • BiopsyA biopsy is a medical procedure that involves taking a small sample of tiss...
  • Bipolar disorderBipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a condition that...
  • Bird flu (avian flu)Bird flu, or avian flu, is an infectious viral illness that spreads among b...
  • BirthmarksBirthmarks are coloured marks that are visible on the skin and are often pr...
  • Black and south Asian kidney healthIf you're black or south Asian, you have a higher risk of kidney disease. F...
  • Black eyeA black eye is where the tissue under the skin surrounding your eye is brui...
  • Black health issuesIntroductory page for articles on health issues prevalent among African and...
  • Bladder cancerBladder cancer is where a growth of abnormal tissue, known as a tumour, dev...
  • Bladder stonesBladder stones are small stones that form inside the bladder. They can irri...
  • Bleeding from the bottomRectal bleeding (bleeding from the bottom) is usually caused by a swollen b...
  • Bleeding in the brainFind everything you need to know about Subarachnoid Haemorrhage including c...
  • Bleeding or spotting after the menopausePost-menopausal bleeding is vaginal bleeding that happens at least 12 month...
  • BlepharitisBlepharitis is a condition where the rims of the eyelids become inflamed (r...
  • BlistersA blister is a small pocket of fluid that forms in the upper layers of the ...
  • Blood clotThrombosis is a blood clot within a blood vessel. It happens when a blood c...
  • Blood donationBlood donation involves collecting blood from a donor so that it can be use...
  • Blood gases testA blood gases test is used to check how well your lungs are working and whe...
  • Blood groupsThere are four different blood types, known as blood groups. The four main ...
  • Blood in phlegmNHS Choices information on coughing up blood, including causes such as ches...
  • Blood in the semenIt's unusual to find blood in your semen when you ejaculate, but try not wo...
  • Blood in the urineFinding blood in your urine (haematuria) can be very frightening and must b...
  • Blood in vomitVomiting blood is a medical emergency – it means there is bleeding somewher...
  • Blood poisoningSepsis (often referred to as either blood poisoning or septicaemia) is a li...
  • Blood pressure testFind out when to get your blood pressure tested, how the test is done, and ...
  • Blood testsEverything you need to know about blood tests including why and how they ar...
  • Blood transfusionA blood transfusion is a process that involves taking blood from one person...
  • Blue lips or skinIf a person's skin or lips turn blue, it's usually a sign of low blood oxyg...
  • Blueberries: antioxidant powerhouse?We sort the phenols from the flannel to bring you the facts about the alleg...
  • BlushingBlushing is the involuntary reddening of the face usually triggered by emot...
  • Body dysmorphiaBody dysmorphic disorder (BDD), or body dysmorphia, is an anxiety disorder ...
  • Body odourBody odour, or bromhidrosis, is an unpleasant smell that can occur when you...
  • Body piercingIf you decide to have a body piercing, make sure you find a reputable, lice...
  • Bodybuilding and sports supplements: the factsSupplements are popular for people wishing to lose weight and build muscle,...
  • BoilsA boil is a red, painful lump on the skin that develops at the site of an i...
  • Bone cancer (sarcoma)Find everything you need to know about Bone Cancer (Sarcoma) including caus...
  • Bone cystA bone cyst is a fluid-filled hole that develops inside a bone. They mostly...
  • Bone densitometry scanRead NHS information about DEXA scan, which stands for dual energy X-ray ab...
  • Bone marrow donationEverything you need to know about bone marrow donation, including why and h...
  • Bone marrow transplantA bone marrow transplant is a procedure that involves replacing damaged bon...
  • Bone spur (osteophyte)NHS Choices information on osteophytes (bone spurs), with links to other us...
  • Boost your child's bone healthBone-boosting diet and exercise tips to help your child build strong, healt...
  • Boost your health at workImprove your health at work, with tips on dealing with stress, RSI, back pa...
  • Borderline personality disorderBorderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the most commonly seen pers...
  • Bornholm diseaseBornholm disease is an uncommon viral infection of the intercostal muscles,...
  • Botulinum toxin injectionsNon-surgical cosmetic treatments, such as Botox and fillers, can be used to...
  • BotulismBotulism is a rare but potentially fatal infection caused by toxins produce...
  • Bowel cancerBowel cancer is a general term for cancer that begins in the large bowel. B...
  • Bowel incontinenceBowel incontinence is an inability to control bowel movements, resulting in...
  • Bowel polypsBowel polyps are small growths on the inner lining of the colon (large bowe...
  • Bowen's diseaseBowen's disease is a very early form of squamous cell skin cancer, which is...
  • Boys and puberty Q&ABoys' questions about puberty, including growing hair, erections, deeper vo...
  • Boys' bodies Q&AAnswers to common questions about boys' bodies, including puberty, sex, pen...
  • Braces (dental)Orthodontics is a type of dentistry that aims to improve the appearance, po...
  • Braces and orthodonticsBraces can transform your smile. Here are the answers to common questions a...
  • Brain abscessFind everything you need to know about Brain Abscess including causes, symp...
  • Brain aneurysmAn aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel that's caused by a weakness in the...
  • Brain deathFind everything you need to know about brain death including causes, sympto...
  • Brain tumoursA brain tumour is a growth of cells in the brain that multiply in an abnorm...
  • Breast abscessA breast abscess is a painful collection of pus that forms in the breast. M...
  • Breast cancer awarenessNot all breast changes mean you have breast cancer, but it's important to k...
  • Breast cancer genesThe genes associated with breast cancer, what it means to have a faulty gen...
  • Breast cancer in menBreast cancer in men is a rare cancer that can develop in the small amount ...
  • Breast cancer in womenBreast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Most oF the women...
  • Breast cancer screeningAbout one in eight women in the UK are diagnosed with breast cancer during ...
  • Breast changes in older womenHow your breasts change after the menopause, including abnormal breast lump...
  • Breast implantsBreast implant surgery is the most common cosmetic procedure to be carried ...
  • Breast lumpBreast lumps are a common condition and have a number of different causes. ...
  • Breast painCyclical breast pain, also known as cyclical mastalgia, is a pain in the br...
  • Breast reconstruction after mastectomyWhat's involved in breast reconstruction after having a mastectomy, and the...
  • Breast reductionFemale breast reduction, also known as reduction mammoplasty, is a surgical...
  • Breath-holding spells in childrenRead about breath-holding spells in children, including the two different t...
  • Breathing difficulty (shortness of breath)Sudden shortness of breath, or breathing difficulty (dyspnoea), is the most...
  • Broken ankleA broken (fractured) ankle is a relatively common injury, often caused by t...
  • Broken armA broken (fractured) arm or wrist is usually caused by a fall onto an outst...
  • Broken collarboneA broken collarbone, or fractured clavicle, is a common injury which usuall...
  • Broken fingerInjury to the hand or fingers can lead to a joint dislocation (where the fi...
  • Broken hipA broken hip is a break in the upper part of the thigh bone near the hip jo...
  • Broken legA broken leg is a break in one of the bones of your leg which is severely p...
  • Broken noseA broken nose is a common injury, usually caused by a blow to the face. Mos...
  • Broken or bruised ribs Fractured or bruised ribs are usually caused by a blow to the chest and nor...
  • Broken toeA broken toe is a common injury, usually caused by dropping a heavy object ...
  • Broken toothNHS Choices information on a broken, chipped or knocked-out tooth, with lin...
  • Bromodosis (smelly feet)The feet have more sweat glands than any other part of the body. Bacteria c...
  • BronchiectasisBronchiectasis is a long-term condition where the airways of the lungs beco...
  • BronchiolitisBronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection that affects ba...
  • BronchitisFind everything you need to know about bronchitis, including causes, sympto...
  • Bronchodilator medicinesBronchodilator medicines make breathing easier by relaxing the muscles in t...
  • BrucellosisBrucellosis is a bacterial infection caught from animals, which can cause l...
  • Brugada syndromeBrugada syndrome is an uncommon but serious heart condition. It can cause f...
  • BulimiaFind everything you need to know about bulimia including causes, symptoms, ...
  • Bullous pemphigoidRead about bullous pemphigoid, a skin condition that affects older people, ...
  • Bullying at workWorkplace bullying is common. Learn how to identify if you're being bullied...
  • Bullying: advice for parentsBullying is a big concern for many parents and carers. Find out what you ca...
  • Bullying: how to stop itIf you're being bullied, talk to someone. There are lots of people who can ...
  • Bullying: the factsMany children and young people experience bullying, but you don't have to p...
  • BunionA bunion is a bony deformity of the joint at the base of the big toe.
  • Burns and scaldsBurns and scalds are damage to the skin caused by heat. Both are treated in...
  • BursitisBursitis is where a bursa becomes swollen and inflamed. A bursa is a small,...
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  • Gallbladder cancerGallbladder cancer is very rare, affecting about 660 people each year. It i...
  • GallstonesFind everything you need to know about gallstones, including causes, sympto...
  • Gambling addictionFind out about the risks of problem gambling and watch a video about one ma...
  • Ganglion cystA ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled swelling that develops near a joint or a ...
  • GangreneGangrene is a serious condition in which a loss of blood supply causes tiss...
  • GastrectomyA gastrectomy is a medical procedure that involves surgically removing all ...
  • Gastritis'Gastritis' means inflammation of the stomach lining. It is a common sympto...
  • GastroparesisGastroparesis is a chronic (long-lasting) condition in which your stomach c...
  • GastroscopyRead information about gastroscopy from NHS Choices, including why, when an...
  • Gender dysphoriaGender dysphoria is a condition in which a person feels that there is a mis...
  • General anaestheticGeneral anaesthetics are medications that are used to cause a loss of consc...
  • Generalised anxiety disorder in adultsAnxiety is a feeling of unease, such as worry or fear, that can be mild or ...
  • GeneticsGenetics is the branch of science that deals with how you inherit physical ...
  • Genital herpesGenital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection thats causes blisters on...
  • Genital wartsGenital warts are small, fleshy bumps that appear around the genital or ana...
  • Gestational diabetesGestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that affects women during pregna...
  • Get active with your kidsHaving trouble getting your child away from the TV? Try these tips to get t...
  • Get active your wayIdeas for busy mums and dads, families, young people, office workers and ol...
  • Get fit for freeGet fit for free with these exercise tips, including podcasts, home workout...
  • Get fit with Strength and FlexThe Strength and Flex plan will help you get up and moving and improve your...
  • Get healthy as a family10 ways to involve the whole family in keeping children a healthy size, inc...
  • Get your hearing testedThere are lots of ways to get a five-minute free hearing check either on th...
  • Getting an allergy testFind out how to get your allergy diagnosed and the types of NHS allergy tes...
  • Giant cell arteritis (temporal arteritis)Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a condition in which medium and large arterie...
  • GiardiasisGiardiasis (gee-ar-dye-a-sis) is an infection of the digestive system cause...
  • Gilbert's syndromeRead NHS information about Gilbert’s syndrome, which is a common and harmle...
  • Girls and puberty Q&AGirls' questions about puberty, including growing hair, breasts, periods an...
  • Girls' bodies Q&AAnswers to questions about girls' bodies, including puberty and sex, vagina...
  • Glandular feverGlandular fever is a type of viral infection that mostly affects young adul...
  • GlaucomaAcute closed angle glaucoma is a serious eye condition caused by a sudden i...
  • GlomerulonephritisGlomerulonephritis is the name for a group of conditions that affect parts ...
  • Glue earGlue ear is a common childhood condition in which the middle ear becomes fi...
  • Glutaric aciduria type 1 Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is a rare but serious inherited condition. I...
  • GoitreFind everything you need to know about Goitre including causes, symptoms, d...
  • GonorrhoeaGonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by bacteria cal...
  • Good foods to help your digestionHow to eat and drink to ensure good digestion, including the foods to avoid...
  • Good sex tipsWays to improve your sex life, including being more sensual and getting to ...
  • GoutFind everything you need to know about Gout including causes, symptoms, dia...
  • Gram stainA gram stain is a test that is often used to identify the cause of a bacter...
  • Granuloma annulareGranuloma annulare is a fairly common long-lasting skin rash that looks lik...
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitiNHS Choices information on granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's gran...
  • Green tea: the elixir of life or just hype?From weight loss wonder to cancer cure, we review the evidence surrounding ...
  • Growing pains (recurrent limb pain in children) Growing pains are aches or pains in the legs that occur in the evening or a...
  • Guillain-Barré syndromeGuillain-Barré (pronounced ghee-lan bar-ray) syndrome is a rare but serious...
  • Gum diseaseGum disease, also known as gingivitis, is where the gums become swollen, so...
  • Gym-free exercisesCheap and easy ways to improve your fitness without a gym, including walkin...
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  • Japanese encephalitisJapanese encephalitis is a type of viral brain infection that is spread thr...
  • JaundiceJaundice is a term used to describe the yellowing of the skin and the white...
  • Jaundice in newbornsFind everything you need to know about jaundice in newborn babies, includin...
  • Jaw problemsTemporomandibular joint disorders (TJDs) are problems that affect the joint...
  • Jellyfish stings and other sea creature stingsFortunately, there are only a few types of sea creatures in the seas around...
  • Jet lagJet lag is tiredness and confusion after a long aircraft journey. It occurs...
  • Joint painJoint pain is a very common problem, with many possible causes. However, it...
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  • Q feverQ fever is an infection caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) bacteria.
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  • RabiesRabies is a very serious viral infection that targets the brain and nervous...
  • RadiationRadiation is a general term that refers to any sort of energy that can trav...
  • RadiotherapyRadiotherapy is a treatment that involves the use of high-energy radiation....
  • Raising low self-esteemWhy some people have low self-esteem and how it can affect your mental heal...
  • Ramadan health FAQsYour health questions about fasting during the holy month of Ramadan are an...
  • Raynaud's phenomenonRaynaud’s phenomenon is a common condition that affects the blood supply to...
  • Reactive arthritisReactive arthritis is a condition that causes inflammation (redness and swe...
  • Red blood countA red blood cell count can be used to measure a decrease in the number of r...
  • Reduce your cancer riskHow a healthy lifestyle can reduce your cancer risk, including diet, being ...
  • Reduce your diabetes riskType 2 diabetes is linked to being overweight. A healthy diet can help redu...
  • Reflux in babiesBabies often bring up milk during or shortly after feeding - this is known ...
  • Renin testA renin test is usually carried out in conjunction with an aldosterone test...
  • Repetitive strain injury (RSI)Read about repetitive strain injury (RSI), which is a general term used to ...
  • Respiratory tract infectionRespiratory tract infections (RTIs) are any infection of the sinuses, throa...
  • Restless legs syndromeFind everything you need to know about Restless Legs Syndrome including cau...
  • Restricted growthRestricted growth (dwarfism) can be caused by several different medical con...
  • Rett syndromeRett syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects approximately 1 in 12,000 ...
  • Reye's syndromeReye's syndrome is a very rare condition that causes serious liver and brai...
  • Rhesus diseaseRhesus disease is a condition where antibodies in a pregnant woman’s blood ...
  • Rheumatic feverInformation on rheumatic fever from NHS Choices including causes, symptoms,...
  • Rheumatoid arthritisRheumatoid arthritis is a condition that causes pain and swelling in the jo...
  • RicketsRickets is a condition that affects bone development in children. The most ...
  • RingwormRingworm is a common and highly infectious skin infection that causes a rin...
  • Root canal treatmentRoot canal treatment is a dental procedure to treat infection at the centre...
  • RosaceaRosacea is a common but poorly understood long-term (chronic) skin conditio...
  • RoseolaNHS Choices information on roseola, with links to other useful resources.
  • RoundwormRoundworms are parasites that can infest the digestive tract and cause asca...
  • RubellaRubella (german measles) is a viral infection that's now rare in the UK. It...
  • Running in winter Don't let cold weather put you off running. Use these tips to stay on track...
  • Running podcasts for C25K graduatesTake your running to the next level with new podcasts for Couch to 5K gradu...
  • Running tips for beginnersRunning tips for beginners, including safety advice, technique, staying mot...
  • Running to music Running to music can help you run more efficiently and for longer. Find out...
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  • Vagina changes after childbirthFind out about changes to the vagina after going through childbirth and how...
  • Vaginal bleeding in pregnancyBleeding during pregnancy is relatively common and doesn't always mean ther...
  • Vaginal cancerCancer of the vagina is a rare type of cancer. There are around 250 new cas...
  • Vaginal dischargeCommon causes of abnormal vaginal discharge include thrush, bacterial vagin...
  • VaginismusVaginismus is where the muscles around the vagina suddenly and painfully co...
  • Vaginitis Vaginitis means inflammation (soreness and swelling) of the vagina.
  • Varicose eczemaVaricose eczema, also known as venous eczema or gravitational eczema, is a ...
  • Varicose veinsVaricose veins are dark purple or blue in colour, and are usually twisted a...
  • Vascular dementiaVascular dementia is a common form of dementia that affects more than 111,0...
  • VasculitisNHS Choices information on vasculitis, with links to other useful resources
  • Vegetarian and vegan diets Q&AAnswers to some common questions about how to stay healthy on a vegetarian ...
  • Vegetarian and vegan mums-to-be Healthy eating advice for vegetarians and vegans during pregnancy and while...
  • Vegetarian food on a budgetAdvice for vegetarians and vegans on keeping the costs down when shopping f...
  • Venous leg ulcer A leg ulcer is a long-lasting (chronic) wound on your leg or foot that take...
  • Verrucas and wartsWarts are small, rough non-cancerous lumps. They often develop on the skin ...
  • VertigoVertigo is a symptom rather than a condition itself. It's the sensation tha...
  • Very low calorie dietsFind out whether a very low calorie diet can help you achieve a healthy wei...
  • Vestibular neuronitisVestibular neuronitis, or neuritis, is an infection of the vestibular nerve...
  • Visual ImpairmentFind everything you need to know about visual impairment including causes, ...
  • Vitamin AVitamin A is also known as retinol and has several important functions.
  • Vitamin BThere are many different types of vitamin B and they all have important fun...
  • Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia or folate deficiency anaemia occur when a la...
  • Vitamin CVitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid and has several important function...
  • Vitamin DVitamin D has several important functions. For example, it helps regulate t...
  • Vitamin EVitamin E has several important functions. For example, it helps maintain c...
  • Vitamin KVitamin K has several important functions. For example, it is needed for bl...
  • Vitamins and Supplements During Pregnancy Eating a varied [diet in pregnancy](https://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/pregnancy...
  • Vitamins, minerals and supplementsAs well as vitamins and more common minerals – such as calcium, iodine and ...
  • VitiligoVitiligo is a long-term condition that causes pale, white patches to develo...
  • Vomiting in adultsNausea and vomiting in adults is usually not a sign of anything serious and...
  • Von Willebrand diseaseVon Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder...
  • Vulval cancerCancer of the vulva is a rare type of cancer with less than 1,200 new cases...
  • Vulvodynia (persistent vulval pain)Vulvodynia is persistent, unexplained pain of the vulva, the skin surroundi...
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  • X-rayX-rays are often used to produce images of the dense tissues inside the bod...
  • XanthelasmaXanthelasma are painless yellow patches which form on the upper and lower e...
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  • Yellow feverYellow fever is a serious viral infection that is usually spread by the Aed...
  • Your medicine cabinetA pharmacist explains the essential medicines no household medicine cabinet...
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  • Zika virusInformation about Zika virus and advice on travelling to an affected area.
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