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A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in your urinary tract. The urinary tract is the body’s drainage system. Waste and extra fluids are removed in the form of urine.
UTIs can occur in different parts of this system, including your bladder, urethra, ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder) or kidneys, but it is usually the bladder and the urethra which are affected.
Women have a shorter urethra than men, so bacteria has a shorter distance to travel before reaching the urinary tract. As a result, lifestyle factors put women more at risk of developing UTIs than men. Most methods for preventing UTIs relate to women.
If a man develops a UTI, there is a higher chance that it is a sign of an underlying health condition like diabetes or an enlarged prostate. UTIs are also common in older age, partially as it can become more difficult to empty the bladder fully.
You can’t always prevent a UTI but all individuals who are at a higher risk can take steps to help protect themselves from infection.
Continue reading to learn more about the causes and symptoms of UTIs, who is most at risk, and the preventative methods you can try.
Make an appointment with your doctor if you think you have developed a UTI, regardless of your sex. Your doctor can check if you are suffering from an underlying condition and prescribe antibiotics to treat the infection
There are a number of symptoms that you might experience if you have developed a UTI, including:
UTIs can be difficult to detect in elderly people and in individuals with dementia. You might notice sudden changes in their behaviour. For example, they may become confused, agitated or withdrawn.
There is not enough evidence to confirm such symptoms are caused by UTIs in older individuals. However, it is worth making an appointment with a doctor to help determine the cause.
Children can also behave differently if they develop a UTI and may:
Babies may be ill-tempered, refuse to eat and have a high temperature or fever. This means a temperature of 37.5C or above.
If you suspect that you, or anyone in your care, has developed a UTI, you should make an appointment with a doctor. Your doctor can treat the infection and check for any underlying health conditions.
A UTI can also spread to your kidneys, leading to a kidney infection. A kidney infection can cause:
Make an urgent appointment with your doctor if you suspect you have developed a kidney infection as it can be serious if left untreated
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If you are still not sure if you are suffering from a UTI, you can try our symptom checker
90% of UTIs are caused by E-coli bacteria from faeces particles getting into the urinary tract.
Women are more at risk of UTIs because they have a shorter urethra than men so bacteria can reach their kidneys and bladder more easily.
For women, their urethra is closer to their anus than men, so bacteria from faeces is more likely to reach the urethral opening.
Additionally, there are other factors which can increase an individual’s risk of developing UTIs, including:
The menopause can also increase the risk of UTIs. There is a link between higher levels of oestrogen and the good bacteria, lactobacillus, which can protect against bad bacteria.
Oestrogen levels drop as women age, possibly leaving them more vulnerable to infection.
If you are at higher risk of developing a UTI, you should take extra precautions to limit the amount of harmful bacteria in your urinary tract.
Peeing is one of the best ways to clear bacteria from your urethra. Try drinking plenty of fluids so you go to the toilet more frequently.
In addition, you can lower your risk of developing a UTI by:
To reduce your chances of developing a UTI, avoid the following:
Women can try swapping diaphragms or spermicidal products for different forms of birth control.
Spermicide is a substance which coats some condoms to kill sperm, but it can also kill the good bacteria around a woman’s vagina.
There is not enough evidence to prove these home remedies are effective, but you can try them and see if they make a difference for you.
There is some evidence that probiotics can help to replenish the body’s store of the good bacteria lactobacillus. It is possible this can help combat the spread of bad bacteria.
Consuming vitamin C may make your urine more acidic. This might help kill harmful bacteria in your urinary tract.
The effectiveness of this method and the extent to which vitamin C actually acidifies urine is not fully known. Additionally, good bacteria can be killed by acidic urine, which may lead to more bad bacteria.
Some may find drinking vitamin C helpful simply because they are drinking more liquid. You can see if consuming more vitamin C helps you prevents UTIs, although it might be just as beneficial to drink more water.
Cranberry juice contains an active ingredient known as A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) which helps prevent harmful bacteria, and in particular E-coli, from sticking to the walls of the urinary tract.
However, research suggests that this method is not very effective. While the exact reason is not known, there may not be enough of this ingredient in either the juice or supplements to have any beneficial effect.
Like with vitamin C, it is possible that drinking cranberry juice prevents UTIs by keeping individuals more hydrated and encouraging them to go to the toilet more.
UTIs are typically treated with antibiotics. If you are suffering from recurrent UTIs, it may be worth asking your doctor for a repeat prescription to prevent the infection from coming back.
If you are taking antibiotics to treat an existing infection, it can take a few days for your symptoms to clear. To ease any pain or discomfort during this time, you can:
A doctor may also advise taking painkillers such as paracetamol. Speak to your pharmacist or doctor for further guidance on whether to use these medications and how to get and use them.
If you have a kidney infection, avoid taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as these can lead to kidney problems. Don’t stop taking any prescription medication until you have spoken to your doctor
There is also evidence that applying creams or gels containing the hormone oestrogen directly to the vaginal area can prevent UTIs.
Oestrogen may help promote the body’s natural production of the good bacteria lactobacillus, which can protect against harmful bacteria.
However, this process is poorly understood and conversely, oestrogen may also make it easier for bacteria to invade the body’s cells.
Find more information on the potential treatments of UTIs in our Health A-Z
You cannot always prevent a UTI from developing, particularly if it is caused by another health condition, but you can maintain lifestyle habits which reduce your risk.
There are several at home remedies that you can try, such as drinking cranberry juice or taking supplements, but there is not enough evidence to confirm these are effective.
In some cases - as with topical oestrogen - it is possible the treatment may aggravate, rather than improve, the condition.
Trustworthy ways to lower your risk include drinking plenty of water and limiting the spread of bacteria from your anus to your urinary tract.
If none of these methods help you prevent infections from returning, you should make an appointment with your doctor. A long course of antibiotics or a repeat prescription may benefit you.
Find more on the possible treatments of UTIs in our Health A-Z
Important: Our website provides useful information but is not a substitute for medical advice. You should always seek the advice of your doctor when making decisions about your health.