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Dehydration occurs when your body loses too much water; upsetting the balance of minerals in your body, and altering the way that your organs function.
Sweating a lot can also make you dehydrated, as can sunstroke (from spending too much time in the hot sun) and drinking too much alcohol.
Illnesses that cause a fever, diarrheoa or vomiting can also increase your risk of dehydration, and some medications (diuretics) are known to make you lose a lot of fluids.
Dehydration is often split into 3 separate ‘types’ or categories, defined by the amount of body weight that you have lost due to fluid loss:
Mild and moderate dehydration can normally be treated by replacing lost salts and fluids at home, while severe dehydration is normally a serious medical emergency that needs to be treated in hospital.
You can manage most cases of mild or moderate dehydration at home.
You should start by drinking plenty of extra fluids, but it is important to remember that drinking plain water may not be enough to replenish the salts, sugars and minerals that your body has lost.
If you think that you might be moderately dehydrated, you may want to consider taking an oral rehydration solution (often available as a sachet or packet from your local pharmacy).
You could also try drinking a flat fizzy drink, such as cola, and eating a salty snack like a packet of crisps.
Some experts recommend that you drink diluted squash, fruit juice or a flavoured sports drink to replenish your electrolytes, but it's important to remember that some of these options may contain a lot of extra sugar.
If you’re struggling to drink large amounts of fluid without feeling sick or nauseous, you may find that it helps to take lots of small sips more often, instead of trying to gulp down a drink.
If your symptoms do not improve, you should try to visit a doctor as soon as possible.
Chronic or severe dehydration can be a medical emergency. You should go straight to the nearest emergency room if you are feeling unusually tired, confused or disoriented.
The doctor may put you on an intravenous drip to replenish any lost salts, and they may also want to order tests to find out why you are dehydrated.
You should also seek emergency medical attention if:
You may be able to tell whether you are dehydrated by looking at the colour of your pee.
Passing pale white or yellow urine normally means that you are well hydrated, while dark yellow urine can be a sign that your body is dehydrated.
Other symptoms of mild or moderate dehydration include:
Some people are less likely to feel thirsty when they are dehydrated. This is particularly true of older people and young children.
Prevention is always easier than cure.
To try and stop yourself from getting dehydrated, try to drink 6-8 glasses of fluid every day, and eat plenty of water-rich foods. Soup, cucumber and ice cream of fruits like melon can all help you to replenish lost fluids.
You can also help to prevent dehydration by drinking extra fluids when you’re hot, suffering from an illness that causes vomiting or diarrhoea, or doing something that makes you sweat more than usual.
Important: Our website provides useful information but is not a substitute for medical advice. You should always seek the advice of your doctor when making decisions about your health.